This informal guide is to help anyone who is interested in growing their cannabis, tomatoes or most any other plants in soil. I will not be going into plant training techniques or lighting requirements, as I only have rudimentary experience with both. I will be sharing what I have learned from growing vegetables, and that I have applied to growing cannabis. I’ll also share a couple of recipes for a complete soil that (presumably) doesn’t need added fertilizer. I am not an expert!
So! I like to start with a bag of Fox Farms Ocean Forest potting soil. It’s what I like, you don’t have to use it if you don’t want to. It’s just what has worked for me, but any decent bag of soil will work. My only advice is to not get your soil from the grocery store, but from an actual garden center or grow store. This, because time after time I have gotten a bag of Black Gold from Freddy’s and wound up fighting fungus gnats. They can be a bitch to get rid of! They harbor fungus in their tiny guts and the larva eat the tender roots of your seedlings. Nasty. Now, I pick up FFOF at the grow store (Far North or Southside Garden Supply) and haven’t seen a gnat yet. Knock on wood!
I germinate my seeds or plugs (clones) in smallish pots placed in rectangular trays, perhaps half gallon size, and then transplant into “big girl” sized pots which are at least 3 gallons. When I do this depends on a couple of factors. The first one being, “Do I have the space for these large pots?” which is a dance I have to deal with in our small house/museum. The other is how tall the plant is in relation to the pot. Ideally, I try to transplant when the plant is twice the height of the pot. This might run the risk of the plant becoming root bound (roots compacted tightly in the pot) but I’ve not had too much of an issue. Usually, the roots ARE wound up in the pot a bit, but this helps to keep dirt, etc. in an easy to manage package when pulling the plant out of the old pot and they quickly spread out in the new, roomier pot.
These are the amendments I use to give my plants a little boost of some of the nutrients (nutes) they need to stay healthy. The Azomite is the most recent addition and has trace minerals, the bone meal was left over from planting peonies (for root growth…how could it hurt?), and the epsom salts and crushed eggshells are from growing tomatoes…magnesium and calcium.
I crush my own eggshells from my own hens, but store-bought eggs will work just fine! After using the goodies inside the eggs, wash them out with water and place them, open side down, on a paper towel to let them dry for a day. Then put them in a ziplock freezer bag and crush them with a rolling pin. Voila! Easily absorbed calcium for your plants. I use the thicker freezer bags because otherwise, the shell fragments will cut holes in your bag and you’ll end up with a powdery mess on your counter and rolling pin.
The pots I use for late vegetative and blooming stages are larger and are at least 3 gallons, made of hard, black plastic and sit on individual round trays to contain water overflow. There are different grades of plastic, some leach more chemicals into the soil, but for the most part, grow stores all sell the best pots for growing.
As you may have guessed, I do go around to the different stores around town for the things I need. I get organic soil amendments from Alaska Mill and Feed, soil is usually less expensive at Far North on Boniface, I like getting most pots from there as well but Southside now carries sturdier pots and trays and they’re right down the street from my house. Plus, they have free compost tea when you bring your $1 jug in for refills. Hydroponic Jack’s has a great variety of bottled nutes but you have to ask for the price as they don’t have the prices on the bottle/package. Even Andy’s Ace Hardware has been carrying a limited array of grow supplies, but they’re expensive and can be had at a lower price across the street at Southside.
When you have your soils, amendments, pots and happy, growing plants ready for transplanting, pick a roomy table inside and cover with newspaper to minimize the dirty mess you’re about to create. And it will be messy! And you will feel like you just created something amazing when you’re done! Or, if you’d rather, pick a pretty day outside.
I start by filling up my pots about 1/3 of the way up. Then I sprinkle the amendments I wish to use on the surface of the dirt, then mix it well into that dirt at the bottom of the pot. I do each pot roughly the same way. The reason I do it this way is so by the time the roots have grown into this enriched soil, the plant is at a point where it’ll require the extra boost of nutrients and minerals, late veg into flowering.
After everything is mixed in well, I fill the pot about 2/3 up with soil and water it just until the excess is running out of the bottom of the pot. I don’t want all the goodness to get flushed out right away!
After you’ve got your pot readied with damp soil, use your hands to scoop and dig a hole big enough to set your plant down into. Damp dirt is more easily packed to form the walls of your hole than dry dirt but try not to tamp it down so hard that the roots have trouble expanding.
When you’re good and ready, take your dirty hands and hold the stem of your plant in one hand while holding the pot in the other, and tip it at a 120 degree angle. That is, to the side and slightly upside down. Give the pot some good squeezes while pulling the plant out of the pot and the entire plant and root ball should come sliding out. As it slides out, follow the momentum of the root ball with your wrist and gently let it swing free or the stem could be injured and be bent. Or, as the plant starts to come free, tip it back upright and continue freeing the root ball from the pot that way. As you become more adept at transplanting you’ll develop the technique that works for YOU.
After you have set the plant into the hole, press down on the root ball to give the roots good contact with the soil. Sometimes you might feel little pops when doing this…it’s some of the roots breaking. Some might disagree with me but I don’t think this is an issue. I feel that it helps open up the mass of roots and encourages new growth. But that’s me.
Then, fill the pot the rest of the way with soil, pressing lightly so there’s not so much settling of dirt as you water and the plant grows.
As your plants go into the flowering stage and the weeks of bloom, you may wish to explore the many different brands of liquid and powdered fertilizers, nutes and additives that are out there. There are so many different brands and types that it can be overwhelming, stepping into your friendly neighborhood grow store. Don’t feel shy about asking the employees there for some direction, or Googling what you need but be sure to look at a few different search results. I’ve had good results with Happy Frog tomato fertilizer and Iguana Juice along with (free!) compost tea. And if you don’t want someone else’s compost tea, you can make your own…there are tutorials for that on youtube! The world is full of different paths and options!
The guideline for fertilizers is NPK, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. During vegetative growth, you’ll want a fertilizer with more N for lush leaves. During bloom, you’ll be looking for fertilizers with higher P and K numbers for roots, thick stems and fat flowers.
There are many different recipes for “hot” soil that people have developed so there’s no need to add additional nutes to it. At all.
Andy’s Super Soil
“It a can be a hot mix so let it compost 4 weeks before using.
Mixed with 6-12 bags of dirt: worm castings, granular Azomite, ground oyster or crab shells, guano, fish bone meal, blood meal, dry humic acid, humus, epsom salts, dolomite, kelp, Great White or other beneficials like Robes from Alaska Jacks…it has 37 different beneficial microbes… mix it in the bottom for potted plants or amend your garden soil with it… and don’t use it to fill your potted plants only in the bottom your plants will grow into it without burning. Add a diluted soil mix to fill the rest of your pot. All these items should be OMRI listed and you will have a 100% organic garden…. only thing I’ll add all summer is some molasses and Carboload by Advanced nutrients to some waterings to feed the beneficial microbes.”
Here is another, from this informative thread: https://www.icmag.com/ic/showthread.php?t=258168
3 gal dirt / earth / topsoil / nursery soil (unfertilized)
1.5 gal coir
2.5 gal peat
3 gal aeration (chunky perlite, lava rock, permatil, etc.)
1 gal EWC (earthworm castings)
Basic Amendment Recipe:
1/2c alfalfa meal
1/2c dry molasses
1c kelp meal
1c blood meal
1c bone meal
1/2c seabird guano
2/3c oyster shell flour
1/4 tbsp BioVam
1/4 tbsp BioAg Vam * I am not familiar with these last two products but I’m sure Google is.
I hope this helps in some way if you plan on or are curious about growing in soil. I enjoy it, it’s very forgiving and I love the therapy of getting my hands dirty. Good luck!